The University of Birmingham cyclotron facility uses a proton beam to irradiate sensors for the ATLAS inner Tracker upgrade.
This paper details the installation of a cold box, in which the samples are placed to be irradiated.
The box has a target window, through which the proton beam penetrates. The box is moved through the beam on a Cartesian robotic scanning system and it is cooled using Liquid Nitrogen.
The box has a operational temperature of -25°C, and can withstand temperatures as low as -48°C.
Samples need to be kept cold to prevent annealing, which is a temperature dependant process. Radiation annealing is the modification of the radiation-damaged atomic structure, due to interstitial atoms diffusing in the lattice.